For meningococcal infection, cyclicality is characteristic, the incidence rises are repeated every 10-15 years. The latter was observed in 2015, when 394 people fell ill.
According to the Ministry of Health, in 2016 there is a decrease in the incidence by 4 times compared to 2015.
Bacterial meningitis is characterized by winter-spring seasonality with the maximum number of diseases in February-April. At the same time, about 70 percent of cases of the disease occur in children and adolescents, of which 50 percent are children aged 1 to 5 years.
In January 2017, the epidemiological situation for bacterial meningitis was stable, 10 cases were registered against 5 in 2016. The growth is due to the cities of Bishkek and Osh.
Meningococcal disease is transmitted by airborne droplets.
The source is a person infected with meningococcus. The greatest epidemic danger is posed by people without clinical signs of the disease – meningococcal carriers.
Infection is carried out through close communication at close range. Most often, the disease is characterized by a sudden and unexpected onset.
There are general infectious symptoms:
- a sharp rise in temperature up to +39 degrees is one of the most important signs of meningitis;
- soreness throughout the body: it seems that all muscles and joints are sore.
Meningeal syndrome – this is a complex of symptoms caused by the inflammatory process of the meninges. Typical in the clinic of meningococcal infection is an acute onset of the disease with an increase in body temperature up to 40-41 degrees, intense headache prevailing in the frontotemporal region, repeated or repeated vomiting, not associated with food intake, does not bring relief, impaired consciousness, convulsions. The most characteristic is the forced position of the child in bed, the head thrown back / rigidity of the occipital muscles.
With timely treatment, meningitis resolves without complications. However, with late seeking medical help, complications may occur (hearing loss or deafness; delayed speech, general mental retardation; hydrocephalus (increased intracranial pressure).
Prevention of meningitis
If symptoms of the disease appear, in no case should you self-medicate, you should consult a doctor as soon as possible, since the consequences can lead to serious complications.
It is very important to observe personal hygiene and hygiene in public places, namely: cover yourself with a handkerchief when coughing and sneezing, carry out wet cleaning and airing the premises in a timely manner.
In order not to get sick it is necessary to temper and play sports, promptly treat acute and chronic infectious diseases that can cause the development of meningitis.