What unites us?
Events of great importance in the history of our multinational state and society have become not only national holidays, but also a part of the life of each of us.
With deep excitement and hope we celebrate the New Year with an elegant Christmas tree and long-awaited gifts from Santa Claus (Ayaz Ata). In February, we congratulate men on Defender of the Fatherland Day. With trepidation, a sea of flowers, we are waiting for the spring holiday of women. The progressive world celebrates the International Day of Human Space Flight on April 12 (since 1961). The world remembers Yuri Gagarin’s radiant smile and his “Let’s go!”
May is full of many events, starting with the Day of International Workers’ Solidarity on May 1, which gradually became a holiday of blooming spring, favorite songs and friendly meetings.
The current 2020 is marked by an epochal event – the 75th anniversary of the Great Victory over the “brown plague” of the 20th century. In the people’s memory forever, as on June 22, 1941 “… without a declaration of war, German troops attacked our country …” Thanks to the heroic deeds of the entire Soviet people, fascist Germany suffered a collapse. And we are grateful to the older generations for today’s peaceful day, for solemn and significant events in the destinies of the country and the people.
The law on a national holiday – Constitution Day was adopted on May 5, 1993.
International Children’s Day, which is celebrated on June 1, is symbolic. This happy holiday pleases with the abundant flowering of the earth, variegated voices of birds, perky laughter and the shine of children’s eyes.
An important event in the history of the republic is August 31 – Independence Day of Kyrgyzstan as a sovereign democratic state.
The life of society is rich in significant events, but now we are talking only about some of them.
So, with the beginning of autumn, the cheerful voices of children will again sound everywhere. The busy school bell starts the new school year and calls for creative knowledge lessons. The Day of the State Language is celebrated on September 21. October – mid-autumn – is famous for its solemn events. With congratulations, good wishes and gratitude, we appeal to our mentors on Teacher’s Day, and to the older generation on International Day of Older Persons (October 1, since 1991).
The days of history and memory of ancestors were announced in our republic on November 7 and 8. “Memory is a measure of the human personality, its spirituality … Memory is also the wings given to humanity. This is what maintains our connections with the world, which helps to overcome the routine of everyday life and rise to the heights of the spirit … ”(Ch. Aitmatov).
Life goes on. And again, with excitement and hope, we celebrate the New Year with an elegant Christmas tree and long-awaited gifts from Santa Claus. And the Earth still rotates around its axis and the Sun. “The phenomenon of eternity lies in the immortality of the idea and spirit.” Ch. Aitmatov.
Traditions of folk ritual and ceremonial holidays
Observing natural phenomena, a person noticed their regularity and connection with labor and life events.
“December ends the year and winter begins.” Winter is known for its folk ritual holidays. On January 7, Orthodox Christians celebrate the Nativity of Christ. It is preceded by Christmastide. Carols songs with good wishes to every home, relatives and friends are played.
– Carol, Carol,
I came to the yard
across a snowy field.
I came to glorify
To dignify the owners,
Wish everyone toast.
Oh, Christmas! Christmas carol!
You happen, Kolyada,
Eve of Christmas.
And on January 19, the Baptism of the Lord is celebrated. The ringing of church bells accompanies the solemn divine service, preaching the idea of goodness and love for one’s neighbor. Winter is famous not only for traditional holidays, but also for frosts – Christmas, Epiphany and others. And February is perceived by many as a month with steep blizzards and blizzards, and the name is for it – lute, twist.
The ancestors of the Kyrgyz, in ancient times, identified 40 of the coldest winter days and gave them the name Childe, the mythical spirit of frost. Childe baba (Childe’s grandfather) sends cold, and the nomadic ancestors turned to him with prayers, begging him to protect the children and keep cattle from jute (death).
The end of winter was marked by the celebration of everyone’s favorite mischievous Maslenitsa with jingling bells, games and amusements. The symbols of Shrovetide are a mountain of pancakes with a boiling samovar and the burning of a Shrovetide straw doll – with the hope of a rich harvest.
Maslenitsa is followed by Great Lent – a harbinger of a significant Christian holiday – the Bright Resurrection of Christ, Easter. The main ideas of the holiday are the ideas of humility, patience, love and forgiveness. In the spring, on the days of the March equinox, the entire Muslim world celebrates the great holiday of rebirth, renewal of the earth – Nooruz. Under the triumphant rays of the sun, the earth wakes up and begins to shine again with many colors.
“Myna mart zhagyrdy – Nooruz keldi” (“March has renewed itself – Nooruz has come”). Services are held in mosques. The symbol of Nooruz is the ritual dish of wheat germ, honey and ghee. Nooruz is a holiday of hope, faith in good and light.
What else is the month of March known for? Dungan Kite Festival (Fon Fynzy). They launch kites in early spring, and the higher and farther they fly away, the faster they take away all the hardships. Since 1877, after the Chinese suppressed their uprising, the Dungans, having moved to the Tien Shan valleys and the shores of the Issyk-Kul, became part of a multinational family on the land of Kyrgyzstan.
There is so much in common in the traditions and customs of peoples living side by side, side by side on this one blessed land.
The Kyrgyz have a joke-joke: “Kyrgyzda ayran kup – orusta mayram kup” (“The Kyrgyz have ayran a lot – the Russian has many holidays”). It should be added that there are countless holidays among the Kyrgyz.
In the Muslim world, among dozens of significant events and holidays, some of them are solemnly celebrated. This is Orozo – fasting in the month of Ramadan. Orozo is a time of cleansing the soul and body from accumulated grievances, the burden of bad thoughts and actions. Unlike Christian fasting, Muslim fasting is rather severe. During the month from pre-dawn prayer to evening sunset, not a drop of water or crumbs of food is allowed. Fasting promotes the accomplishment of good, the manifestation of sympathy, compassion, the provision of charitable assistance (sadaqa).
After the end of the 30-day fast, Muslims celebrate the holiday of fasting and remembrance – Orozo ait (Eid al-Adha). Ritual ceremonies of remembrance are accompanied by cattle sacrifices and abundant treats. And to this day, descendants sincerely honor the memory of deceased relatives and people close to them (one should remember the parental day of the Orthodox). These days, the poor, sick, needy, lonely, large families are provided with material assistance (sadaqa) at the expense of voluntary contributions (money, things, food, household items) from other people. Orozo is a holiday of nobility and generosity.
Winter and spring significant events are replaced by summer bustle. At the beginning of the warm days, the ancestors of the Kyrgyz, with all the household and livestock, began to wander to the pastures – jailoo. For a successful relocation, a prosperous arrangement of life, protection and preservation of the economy from various adversities, ritual dinners-treats were arranged – ulyush (part, share). They invited relatives, friends, neighbors, sounded toasts, wishes, parting words about a successful summer roaming, on which life depends on cold winter days.
June is also a significant event in the life of Christians. On the 50th day after Easter, Trinity Day (the descent of the Holy Spirit to earth) begins. Over time, the Trinity began to be perceived as a bright summer holiday that deified nature. Everything around is buried in greenery, which, according to signs, protects everyday life, the house from natural disasters, disasters.
July 7 is known as a ritual holiday – the day of Ivan Kupala, the mythical spirit of water, and is accompanied by ceremonial mass bathing. It is believed that on this day, the herb is filled with healing properties. And on the same night, once a year, a mysterious fern blooms. Whoever finds this flower will become rich. July is the hottest month of summer, and people rush to the water. Water is perceived by the whole world as a shrine and a source of life.
Since ancient times, the Kyrgyz have a cult of nature – Zher-Suu (Earth and Water), covering the vastness of water and land.
In summer, sometimes thunderstorms rumble, lightning flashes. The Slavs say that Elijah the prophet raced in a chariot. The fate of the harvest is associated with it. They wonder: will it rain or not? And the workers of the earth turn to the forces of nature:
Mother is a damp earth
And the mistress of everything!
Perun and Stribog himself –
To collect the clouds
He is over my field,
And let Perun
Will shed from them
I promise you!
“The rain is pouring out of a bucket – it’s a golden time, don’t waste a minute in vain,” “a summer day feeds the winter,” they say. The ancestors of the Kyrgyz considered the rumble of thunder to be a harbinger of a heavy downpour. The ritual mythical creatures McKie and McCool chased the clouds and poured rain.
It means to be an autumn harvest festival – Chechker (Chech – five-fingered pitchfork used during threshing).
“Zhamgyr menen zher gilduyt, emgek menen el gilduyt” (“The earth blooms with rain, the people prosper with difficulty”). The entire labor process is famous for amulets and is accompanied, again according to popular belief, by other mythical patrons of the land – Baba Dyikan, Kydyr ake. However, folk wisdom reminds of the responsibility of a person for his actions, that “you cannot get food by lying down” and if “you sleep until lunchtime, do not blame your neighbor for getting up early and not inviting you to visit”.
And life goes on …
In a hot summer, 70 days after the end of the Orozo Fast, on July 31 of this year, Muslims will celebrate the holiday of Kurman Ait (Kurman Bayram). If Orozo Ait is a holiday of breaking the fast and remembrance, then Kurman Ait is a holiday of sacrifices in the name of life and those living on earth. Kurman Ait teaches lessons about respect for the world around us. Teaches you to take care of it, to rejoice in it. To remember and keep the memory of relatives and friends who have gone to another world.
“A person who has no memory, no history, no spiritual biography embodied in the images of great art, is doomed to spiritual poverty; he is not ready for the most complex modern life. ” It is unobtrusive, accessible, succinctly stated by Ch. Aitmatov.
The days of Kurman Ait, like all other Islamic holidays, are distinguished by an abundance of ritual treats – a variety of meat dishes, oriental delicacies, fruits, and pastries. Including boorsoks and flat cakes are popular and loved by everyone. And full bowls of kumis, according to the definition of professional experts and world-famous scientists (V. Dahl, N. Postnikov and I. Mechnikov and others), – steppe balsam for 100 ailments.
The holidays of Ivan Kupala and Kurman Ait precede the long-awaited harvest.
“A summer day feeds the winter”, “The one who has rye was born”, “The bread harvesting is a crown for everything” – and in anticipation of the Chechker holiday, the songs of the hay-mowers, reapers, widely represented in folklore, sounded.
“Song of the Harvest”
Reap, reap, fellows,
Hurry up, well done!
You heroes are not lazy
Harvest wheat and barley.
Let the hand not leave
Not a spikelet at the root.
Let the hand not leave
No grain, no stalk.
Cute barley spikelet,
Yes, and he will go to us for future use.
Great is the grain of wheat,
Yes, it will come in handy in winter.
Hurry up, well done!
Reap, reap, fellows!
(translated from Kyrgyz N. Grebnev).
“Work quickly – there will be mountain bread”, “Who is not lazy, the bread will be born”, “What is in the oven – everything is on the table with swords,” people say.
Grind, grind, grind rye,
Sifted through a sieve
Sifted through a sieve
Into a wooden trough.
There is enough room in that trough
Knead, knead, knead the dough.
In a black, black cauldron
The bread is baked on a fire.
Enough bread for all relatives
Enough for you and me.
(translated from Kyrgyz N. Grebnev).
And on the plentiful tablecloth appears labor, warm, golden bread, sung by the people: “Bread and water are heroic food”, “No matter how much you think, you can’t think of better bread and salt” – such is the endless folk wisdom.
“… There were peoples that disappeared without a trace in wars, there were cities burnt with fire and covered with sands, there were centuries when I dreamed of seeing a human footprint. And whenever people started wars, I told them: “Stop, don’t spill blood!” And now I repeat: “Hey, people over the mountains, over the seas! Hey, people living in this world, what do you want – land? Here I am – the earth! I am the same for all of you, you are all equal to me. I don’t need your strife, I need your friendship, your work! Throw one grain into the furrow and I will give you one hundred grains. Stick in a twig and I will grow a plane tree for you. Plant a garden and I will shower you with fruits. Raise livestock and I’ll be grass. Build houses and I will be a wall. Be fruitful, multiply – I will be a wonderful home for all of you. I am infinite, I am infinite, I am deep and high, I am enough for all of you! “
Ch. Aitmatov. “Mother’s field” (monologue of Mother Earth)
And life goes on …